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Monday, October 18, 2010

Improving Software Quality

(from: http://www.robelle.com/library/papers/quality/#ref )

[Cover page: Steps to Software Quality]

by Robert Green

Robelle Solutions Technology Inc.

I am founder of a small software company that makes tools for the Hewlett-Packard 3000 computers. I also spent seven years working in the HP factory and three years in an end-user MIS department. I have been involved in the development of applications, operating systems, and tools, some of high quality and some of low.
 Our software products Qedit and Suprtool have high reputations for quality in the HP 3000 marketplace, but I suspect that our initial design and code are not much better than other people's. What may be different is the way we evaluate and revise our efforts before official release, and the way we react to error reports after the release. The result is that few users ever experience our programming or design mistakes. When one does, we have systems in place that can correct most of them quickly. That is the topic of this paper.
I have good news and bad news regarding software quality. The bad news is: compared to hardware, software quality is terrible. The good news is: I don't think it is the programmers' fault. The techniques for writing good code are well-known and I won't rehash them here. No doubt there are still more techniques and tools to come that will assist in this difficult task. However, most of the quality problems occur because of mismatches between the programs and the needs of clients, not because of bugs.

Outline


Quality Equals Superior Value to the Client



The market value of a product is not an intrinsic value, not a "value in itself", hanging in a vacuum. A free market never loses sight of the question: of value to whom? [Ayn Rand]

Defining Quality

A good way to start any inquiry is to define your terms. According to my Little Oxford Dictionary, Quality is a noun meaning "degree of excellence". Excellence is defined as "surpassing merit", Merit as "goodness", and Goodness as "virtue". So what we have here is an ethical issue: Quality is the relative virtue of a thing, compared to alternatives. Your software has quality to the extent that it provides Value to some living, breathing people with choices and options. If another program solves a similar problem in a way that the person values more, it has higher quality.

Quality Demands Constant Attention

Quality is a hot topic right now with business gadflies like Tom Peters: "Quality improvement is a never-ending journey. There is no such thing as a top-quality product or service. All quality is relative. Each day each product or service is getting relatively better or relatively worse, but it never stands still. Ford is doing well now, but Toyota, which Ford sees as its principal competitor, is implementing 5,000 new suggestions a day."

Quality is Different From Correctness

Quality is not the same thing as "Correctness", which is producing a program that exactly implements the design specifications. What if the design does not specify what the clients need and want? Quality is not static: people's needs and situations change over time, and as they do, the quality of your program will change as well. You cannot separate the quality of a product or service from the evaluations of the people who will be using it at a given time and place. [LaserJet] [HP 150]
The 150 "worked", but was incompatible with other PC software, used an odd-size diskette, and customers did not want the touch screen. The LaserJet, on the other hand, satisfied customer needs perfectly. [Kathy McKittrick]

Quality is Judged in a Context

Don't ever forget that the quality of your programs will be judged in the context of an installed client system. The client has other programs that he uses and understands, he has administrative policies that may differ from yours, he has people with different backgrounds and training from yours. You must be aware of the client's total experience with your program. Clients have their own context from which they look at our software:

Why do some subsystems require "EXIT", some "E", and some "EX" to exit? Even in MPE XL, in a single subsystem, SYSDIAG, part of it requires "EXI" and the next level up requires "EX". I know that there is an explanation and it is because parts of the software were written by different teams in vastly different geographical locations, but it seems to me that an elementary standard such as exiting the program should be uniform. [John Dunlop, Interrupt magazine]
[Which door?]

Involve the Client From the Start



After the state spent $20 million and nearly seven years trying to computerize its public-assistance program, the first caseworkers to use the system made their own discovery: They could figure out a client's benefits faster by hand than with the computer. [Seattle Times, May 19, 1989]
[State bytes off more than it can chew]

Why Do Big Projects Often Go Wrong?

COSMOS was a gigantic government project to save money calculating eligibility for social assistance such as food stamps and welfare. "After spending over $20 million, the Washington State government decided to swallow its losses and terminate COSMOS. A consultant's report recommended scuttling COSMOS. The report cited poor management, an overly complex design, difficulty to use by caseworkers, and the use of untested software." [Seattle Times] This software disaster includes most of the things that can be done wrong. The state contracted with an outside firm to design and implement the system. What started as a Big Project, grew into a Giant one. State officials bragged that COSMOS would use artificial intelligence. It was seven years before the first pilot installation, when workers found it took up to twice as long to figure out a client's eligibility with COSMOS as it did manually.
The traditional method of developing a DP system includes endless user interviews, voluminous specifications, official approval by confused users, programming phase, integration phase, testing phase, user training, and endless bureaucracy. Notice that this method does not deliver any working programs to the clients until the very end. Creating a DP system without delivering anything to the clients until everything is done is like constructing a complete office building on its side, then trying to lift it into position.
[Traditional methods applied to an office building]

Projects Must Be Grounded in Reality

Physicist Richard Feynman was a member of the Presidential Commission that investigated the crash of the Challenger shuttle. He concluded that NASA management exaggerated the reliability of the shuttle to the point of fantasy, then regularly and subtly reduced safety criteria to maintain the published launch schedule.
For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled. [Feynman]
Fantasy by top management has a devastating effect on employees. If your boss commits you to producing a new accounting system in six months that will actually take at least two years, there is no honest way to do your job. Such projects usually appear to be on schedule until the last second, then are delayed, and delayed again. Management's concern often switches from the project itself to covering up the bad publicity about the delays.
Information from the bottom which is disagreeable is suppressed by big cheeses and middle managers ... Maybe they don't say explicitly, "Don't tell me," but they discourage communication ... it's a question of whether, when you do tell somebody about some problem, they're delighted to hear about it. If you try once or twice to communicate and get pushed back, pretty soon you decide, "To hell with it." [Feynman]
An objective project goal unleashes people's minds to discover solutions and attain the goal. An irrational goal just short-circuits the best within them. [see no- hear no- speak no- reality]

Moon's Maxim

Why is it that systems designed with great care, using experienced analysts and the latest design techniques, can totally fail to solve the client's problem? I heard one answer recently:
Moon's First Maxim: The process of developing a system uncovers information about the system that no one could have known at the offset. [Richard Moon]
Users are not, and cannot be expected to be, systems analysts. And systems designers cannot think like users. The client often cannot describe what he wants -- he does not realize how important exceptions are. Even when the analyst extracts all his wants from him and defines them in an enormous specification, he has no idea what is critical and what is frosting. In an attempt to wrench precise specifications from the client, some shops spend so long on the design that by the time they are done, the client's needs have changed. The clients are often shut out after the general design phase. They are asked to approve the specifications so that the programmers can get to work. One thing you can be sure of: the clients may not be able to tell you what they want, but they can tell you what they don't like when you finally deliver the code.
The Hewlett-Packard Company has more success producing quality electronic instruments than quality software products. I think the reason is that the engineers who design instruments are basically their own clients -- they can visualize what would make a better product because both they and the client are engineers. The programmers who create financial accounting packages are not accountants, they are programmers -- and they can't afford to trust their personal judgment of an accounting program's quality.

Get the Program to the Client

It was Michel Kohon who first pointed out to me the reason why it is difficult for the client to visualize the result of a program, especially an interactive one:
A program is not static. The actions it performs vary dynamically, depending on the information that is entered. It is a moving body and is unlikely to be adequately described without using jargon. The same applies to mathematics or astronomy, or films. How can we visualize a film from a script? This is why the sooner you show the program to the user, the better it will be for his understanding. [Michel Kohon]
You must get the program into the client's hands in order to find out what you don't know! Once you get a reaction from the client, you can revise the program to meet his exact needs.

Moon's Second Maxim:

Development methodologies that do not support iterative development are doomed to failure. [Richard Moon]
[Input -- Output -- Kaput] This is a key insight. You can never get a software design correct by just studying and interviewing. You will always have to go back and revise the design as soon as you start implementing. We use a form of iterative development called the Step by Step method that was proposed in a 1980 paper written by the above-mentioned Michel Kohon.


Start Small and Make Constant Improvements



American companies also have often lagged behind their overseas competitors in exploiting the potential for continual improvement in the quality and reliability of products and processes. The cumulative effect of successive incremental improvements in and modifications of established products and processes can be very large; it may even outpace efforts to achieve technological breakthroughs. [Scientific American]

The Advantages of Small Projects and Pilots

I have observed that small teams seem to produce quality results more often than large teams. Others have observed the same:
At Pacific Bell, a system was required for automating a million transactions. Two estimates were received, one from a big, outside firm (three years, $10 million) and one from a major Pacific Bell unit (two years, $5 million). Meanwhile, three South California employees took a crack at the task--and did it in sixty days for $40,000. [Tom Peters]
Small projects have the advantage that they can be cut off or modified quickly. Big projects are hard to cancel, because of the political flak over all the money already spent, and are hard to modify, because of the rigid planning that goes into them. To be successful in the free market, you need to respond instantly to new facts and opportunities. [All set for the big opening?]
Small projects, especially pilot projects, are perfect for testing new ideas in the real world. Even large goals, such as a new aircraft design at Boeing, can be done as a series of small projects. Parts of new aircraft are tried out as redundant systems on current aircraft. According to Tom Peters, the key to successful innovation is to "test it now, at least some piece of it, in the real world..."

Is this approach `soft'? NO! It is hard--the very hardest. It is rational and it is `scientific'. In fact, it amounts to the organizations embracing the essence of the scientific method--empiricism and the experimental method. Piloting is the approach based on data. By contrast, decision making by proposal churning is whistling in the wind; it is the truly soft and ultimately less rational route. [Peters]

Step by Step: Limit Time as Well as Staff

Everyone is familiar with Brook's Law: Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later.
Why is it that increasing the resources never seems to get the work done faster? One reason is economics. To produce programs, you will assign programmers, but there are never enough. Why? Because the client's demands will always increase to match your supply of programmers.
This is a common result in all human interactions. When they opened a new freeway in Vancouver recently, a highway expert said not to expect any lessening of traffic on other routes. The reason: by making it easier to travel downtown, the new freeway would entice more suburban motorists to take trips. The traffic expands to fill the roads available.

The only logical way to escape this dilemma is to limit the offer [i.e., supply]. How can we do that? One way is to limit resolutely the number of programmers working on a project. A second way is to limit explicitly the amount of time allocated to a program or system. Let's imagine for a moment that we've said we have two weeks to program our system with the existing manpower. No more than two weeks. How can we best solve the problem in the amount of time given? The natural way will be to put on paper what the MUSTS and the WANTS are. If both can be produced in two weeks, we will program both, but that is unlikely... The most important objective is to find the absolute MUSTS which can be produced with the current staff in a limited period of two weeks....Never go back on the two weeks allowed. It MUST be done in two weeks. Try to imagine that in two weeks' time, it will be the End of the World. Users will laugh, but they will, as well, appreciate your concern. [Michel Kohon]
[End of the world] The Step by Step method suggests dividing projects into two-week chunks, then delivering each chunk to the client for actual use. This has a number of useful results. It involves the client directly and enthusiastically in the design of the system, it means you never have to write off more than two weeks' work if your design is wrong, it means you can make constant adjustments in your goals as you get realistic feedback, and it eliminates the difference between the development and maintenance programmer. Everyone becomes a maintenance programmer, charged with delivering increasing value to the client in each step.

Continual Improvement

You can learn a great deal about what produces successful software by looking at the HP 3000 software market. The HP factory often appears to follow a method that can be summarized as Design It, Code It, and Forget It. The result is that most of their software products over the last ten years have been unsuccessful. The ones that succeeded, such as COBOL, have had constant enhancements over the years. The software products that have not had attention after first release are now forgotten. The most successful HP program, MPE, has been continually enhanced for 15 years. But consider the Spooler. The new Native-Mode Spooler is the first enhancement since the SPOOK program, over ten years ago, and the 2680 printer support, over five years ago. No wonder four vendors can make a good living selling enhancements to the Spooler.
If you want to see the tremendous power of continuing, unrelenting, tiny improvements, you just have to look at the Japanese success in manufacturing:

The Japanese treat every product as an ongoing experiment and are constantly engaged in improving it. [Peters]
Find out what was wrong, try to understand why it had gone wrong, and then break down the corrective process into modest steps. [David Halberstram, The Reckoning]
I feel strongly that a programmer should stay on a program through its life. In many shops, programmers are treated like commodities and shifted from project to project frequently. This ignores the benefits that come from continuing to work on a single project: experience in client needs, experience with the code and data structures, working relationships with the other people involved on the project and in the industry. These are lost if a programmer is shuffled off to another project as soon as he completes part of one project. [The boss]

Solve the Actual Problem First



Identifying the long-term and short-term objectives will permit you, with the users, to draw a line of actions within an overall strategy. You will move from point A to point Z through points B, C, D, ..., with each point being an objective. But how to order these points? To provide a solution to the top problem [first] means that you will give the maximum result in a minimum of time, and you will repeat this with each successive point. Order the objectives from the maximum payoff to the minimum. These will be your Steps. [Michel Kohon]

Let the Value to the Client Order the Steps

I have proposed involving the client in the design process, starting small, and improving a system in continual steps. However, what do you work on first, and how do you set priorities? Programmers have a tendency to want to work on the technical challenges first, since that is what they know best. But a beautiful screen doesn't help the client unless it has data on it that are important to him. This is not Step by Step.
Step by Step aims to discover the client's actual requirements and program them all, eventually. Suppose a client is having cash flow problems? He asks you to provide an order processing system, expecting that the more efficient invoicing will bring in cash more quickly.
The typical response is to give him an order processing system. If you could provide a complete working order processing system in two weeks, including invoicing, you would indeed solve his cash flow problem. But you can't, so you conduct a long study and install order entry as phase one. This is more work for him and does not solve his most pressing problem. This is not Step by Step.
[House with roof vs house with no roof]
Step by Step challenges you to deliver something in the first step that will make a big contribution toward solving the client's most pressing problem. This is not easy to do -- it takes creative thought. You might automate just the invoices with the largest dollar amount. Or just the simplest ones, leaving the staff free to deal with the ugly invoices manually. Think of solving the 20% of the cases that generate 80% of the benefit.
[Doctor: Blood type? Nurse: Age and name? Patient: Can somebody stop the bleeding please?]

Solve Part of the Actual Problem in the First Step

Until you deliver a program to the client, you have not accomplished anything, and you haven't started receiving the objective feedback that will ensure a quality system. The advantage of going after the immediate problem first is two-fold: it gets the client on your side, and it uncovers facts about the problem that may make the rest of the project simpler or unneccesary. This is the hardest part of the Step by Step method, the part that requires the most demanding thought on your part. You will need to analyze the client's problems sufficiently to make an objective hypothesis identifying the most critical problem. For complex clients, this could be a major study. But you must always remember that the goal is the programs, not the investigation.


Know Thy Client



Since you're not the customer you have no way of knowing what's important and what's not important about the product. [anonymous HP client, quoted in "HP Corporate Quality 1989"]

From the Client's Point of View

A program is inseparable from the manual, sales brochure, packaging, delivery, training, support, and installation that come with it. In the same way, an application system is inseparable from the operating system that it runs on and the 4GL that it is coded in. All of these elements go into creating the client's experience. It takes a total team effort to ensure high quality. For example, disposable contact lenses come in a plastic package that keeps them sterile and moist until use. However, peeling off the foil seal leaves a sharp edge that can cut your hand. The contact lens may give perfect sight, the marketing may be superb, the sales team helpful, and the product distribution speedy, but if the client cuts his hand opening the package, that undercuts the quality of the entire product.
It is frustrating to dedicate two years to a computer program, as happened to a former HP employee of my acquaintance, then find that the company bureaucracy cannot deliver the program to the users for another three years. The best people quit and form their own companies -- the ones who stay often shrug and say "that's not my job." At Robelle, we hold staff meetings every two weeks in which sales, support, finance, R&D, marketing, and administration provide each other with a global picture of product concerns and customer priorities.

Break Down Barriers to Clients

Programmers Should Take Technical Support Calls.

There is nothing like hearing directly from an irate user of a piece of software that you wrote to motivate you to improve it. [Programmer in pain]
No Matter
How Much
It Hurts!


Programmers Should Visit Client Sites.

When you are on site, people mention problems that irritate them but which they won't call about. You see them use your product in unexpected ways and use ingenious workarounds for unsuspected design flaws. Users group meetings are another good place to meet clients.

Bug Tracking Software.

There is nothing worse than ignoring a cry for help. Once you have a reputation as a "black hole" (bug reports are never heard of again), clients stop looking to you for solutions, or products. We use electronic mail and a keyworded database to collect trouble calls and route them to interested parties, including programmers. Anyone can append comments to the original call report and the comments are distributed via E-Mail also. This "conferencing" makes a lab programmer feel almost as if he is on the technical support line.

Continuous, Intelligent, Honest Communication.

A dependable, concise technical newsletter builds client loyalty. It should be selective. Clients are busy and don't have time to read everything they receive every week. The HP Software Status Bulletin contains every known problem, but doesn't highlight the disastrous ones. This would require a senior person as editor. A newsletter should be timely. If you insist on a glossy four-color format that makes production stretch out to weeks, your news will be dated. We aim for one-day turnaround. [Newsletters]

Admit That Mistakes Are Inevitable



The most important lesson to be learned from this incident is that even highly talented programmers make disastrous mistakes. Morris's program was comparatively small and simple, and had a limited and well-defined purpose. It faced no serious obstacles in the form of security barriers that attempted to foil it. Morris is known to be extremely skillful, was highly motivated to write an error-free program, and was not working under the pressure of any deadline. Despite all these facts, his program contained a catastrophic error [causing it to replicate and propagate itself far more rapidly than he apparently intended]. [Ornstein]
I found this example in the ACM's comprehensive review of Robert Morris's famous Internet Virus that invaded 6,000 Unix systems on November 2, 1988. Producing quality software is difficult and mistakes are inevitable -- not just mistakes in programming, but more disastrously, mistakes even in identifying what the client needs.

Be a Humble Manager

One of the key papers in the history of structured programming was The Humble Programmer by Dijsktra. Most programmers have accepted his approach:
I now suggest that we confine ourselves to the design and implementation of intellectually manageable programs... We shall do a much better programming job, provided that we approach the task with a full appreciation of its tremendous difficulty, provided that we stick to modest and elegant programming languages, provided that we respect the intrinsic limitations of the human mind and approach the task as Very Humble Programmers. [Dijsktra]
Now we need to extend those insights to the equally difficult task of managing "what" programmers program. Humble management is like defensive driving. You must assume that something will go wrong at the worst possible moment and be prepared to switch gears quickly.

Some Techniques for Managing Error

Explicit Design Criteria.

Programmers need guidelines to help them make difficult tradeoffs while programming. At Robelle, our criteria are reliability first, then compatibility, performance, and finally features. Without such leadership from management, programmers cannot be expected to produce a consistent and dependable style of program.

The Development Diary.

This is a computer file that acts as a lab notebook; it records your thoughts and plans as you work on the code. We make entries for each day, with the most recent day at the start of the file. Other sections of the file list outstanding bugs, enhancement requests, patches for known problems, and documentation problems.

Batch Jobs to Test for Stupid Mistakes.

If you touch the code, you may delete a line by mistake. We do automatic batch regression testing of each new version. The tests are designed to abort if anything goes wrong, or update a results file if they make it to the end. We often run the test suite every night to check that day's changes. Ideally, each bug uncovered should be verified with a batch job that reproduces it. Once the bug is corrected, the test will pass and will ensure that old bugs do not creep back in by accident (this has happened to us!).

Frequent User Testing.

The biggest danger is that you will deliver a working system that doesn't do what the client needs or wants. Even when your code does what they want, it never does it exactly right on the first pass. To minimize this risk, we send pre-releases of revised software to selected clients about once a month. A pre-release program is much like a regular release, including updated manuals and on-line help. We seek out clients who will treat this software as harshly as they would an official new product, and we often find them in our tech-support records. The benefit is mutual: we get objective feedback, and the clients often get very quick solutions to their problems.

Measure Quality in All Functions and at All Levels

What you measure is what you care about - people sense this. Measurements are good for recognizing achievements, not just detecting problems. Most jobs are repetitive -- it isn't easy to appreciate all the work you did in a year without numbers ("I filled 200 client orders", or "I wrote 2000 lines of code that got into production"). Start with concrete, mundane measurements that are easy to collect. They should be simple, they should relate to your long-range goals, and they should be understood by the people who make them. Just the fact that you are measuring will make a difference. If you show you care, people will refine the categories and numbers over time. Here are some you can start with:

  • Time to get a new release to the client, to fix a bug, to answer a fax.
  • Number of bugs reported each week.
  • Warranty costs, number of returned products.
  • Number of products shipped per day, percentage shipped in 8 hours.
  • Number of times competitor mentioned favorably!
Dan Warmenhoven has said that HP has two new metrics it will use to measure software quality: "... the number of post-release defects in the first year ... and the number of critical and serious open problem reports." [Interrupt Oct. 89].

Where Does the Money Flow in Your Organization?

Do salesmen get bonus trips to Hawaii and cars and fancy offices and awards and special dinners, while technical support people get a certificate of appreciation? Is it any wonder that the products don't work right? It isn't what you say that matters, but what you do. How is the budgeting arranged? Is there funding for on-going improvements of the software? Is your super-programmer allowed to work on a single project for years until it is a coveted tool of the clients, or is he constantly shifted to another project as soon as he delivers the first version, and replaced by a junior maintenance programmer? Management communicates priorities every time it does anything -- whatever management spends time on and rewards is what the company will emphasize.



Concluding Remarks


The task of improving software quality is primarily a management task, not a technical one. The problem is not that we haven't adopted the latest, "perfect" system development methodology -- the problem is that we haven't been realistic about the immense difficulties in producing quality software, and we haven't been paying attention to the mundane, practical details of producing software that does what the client actually needs and wants. I think that the primary responsibility of managers, the fundamental one around which all others will revolve, is to break projects into manageable steps, then deliver the new software produced by each step into the client's hands, so they can give you objective feedback for the next step.


References



Berger, S. et al, "Toward a New Industrial America", Scientific American, June 1989, Volume 260, Number 6., by Suzanne Berger, Michael Detouzous, Richard Lester, Robert Solow, and Lester Thurow. Brooks, Frederick P., The Mythical Man-Month, Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1975.
Dijkstra, E., "The Humble Programmer", 1972 Turing Award Lecture at the ACM Annual Conference, Boston, on August 14, 1972.
Feynman, Richard P., "Personal Observations on the Reliability of the Shuttle," What Do You Care What Other People Think?, New York: W. W. Norton, 1988.
Halberstam, David, The Reckoning, New York: Avon, 1986.
Kohon, Michel, "Introduction to Step by Step", SMUG II Proceedings, Langley: Robelle, 1982.
Ornstein, Severo M., Communications of the ACM, June 1989, Volume 32, No. 6.
Moon, Richard, "Managing 4GL System Development in the 1990's", Conference Proceedings of the HP Computer Users Association, Brighton, England, July 1989.
Peters, Tom, Thriving on Chaos, New York: Harper and Row, 1987.
Rand, Ayn. Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal, New York: New American Library, 1966.
Schlender, Brenton. "How to Break the Software Logjam", Fortune, September 25, 1989.

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